Style a Tiny Table


Style a Tiny Table


  i = NULL,
  j = NULL,
  bold = FALSE,
  italic = FALSE,
  monospace = FALSE,
  underline = FALSE,
  strikeout = FALSE,
  color = NULL,
  background = NULL,
  fontsize = NULL,
  align = NULL,
  alignv = NULL,
  colspan = NULL,
  rowspan = NULL,
  indent = 0,
  line = NULL,
  line_color = "black",
  line_width = 0.1,
  finalize = NULL,
  tabularray_inner = NULL,
  tabularray_outer = NULL,
  bootstrap_class = NULL,
  bootstrap_css = NULL,
  bootstrap_css_rule = NULL,


x A table object created by tt().
i Row indices where the styling should be applied. Can be a single value or a vector. i=0 is the header, and negative values are higher level headers. If colspan is used, i must be of length 1.

Column indices where the styling should be applied. Can be:

  • Integer vectors indicating column positions.

  • Character vector indicating column names.

  • A single string specifying a Perl-style regular expression used to match column names.

bold Logical; if TRUE, text is styled in bold.
italic Logical; if TRUE, text is styled in italic.
monospace Logical; if TRUE, text is styled in monospace font.
underline Logical; if TRUE, text is underlined.
strikeout Logical; if TRUE, text has a strike through line.

Text color. There are several ways to specify colors, depending on the output format.

  • HTML:

    • Hex code composed of # and 6 characters, ex: #CC79A7.

    • Keywords: black, silver, gray, white, maroon, red, purple, fuchsia, green, lime, olive, yellow, navy, blue, teal, aqua

  • LaTeX:

    • Hex code composed of # and 6 characters, ex: "#CC79A7". See the section below for instructions to add in LaTeX preambles.

    • Keywords: black, blue, brown, cyan, darkgray, gray, green, lightgray, lime, magenta, olive, orange, pink, purple, red, teal, violet, white, yellow.

    • Color blending using xcolor, ex: white!80!blue, green!20!red’.

    • Color names with luminance levels from the ninecolors package (ex: "azure4", "magenta8", "teal2", "gray1", "olive3").

background Background color. Specified as a color name or hexadecimal code. Can be NULL for default color.
fontsize Font size in em units. Can be NULL for default size.
align A single character or a string with a number of characters equal to the number of columns in j. Valid characters include ‘c’ (center), ‘l’ (left), ‘r’ (right), ‘d’ (decimal). Decimal alignment is only available in LaTeX via the siunitx package. The width of columns is determined by the maximum number of digits to the left and to the right in all cells specified by i and j.
alignv A single character specifying vertical alignment. Valid characters include ‘t’ (top), ‘m’ (middle), ‘b’ (bottom).
colspan Number of columns a cell should span. i and j must be of length 1.
rowspan Number of rows a cell should span. i and j must be of length 1.
indent Text indentation in em units. Positive values only.

String determines if solid lines (rules or borders) should be drawn around the cell, row, or column.

  • "t": top

  • "b": bottom

  • "l": left

  • "r": right

  • Can be combined such as: "lbt" to draw borders at the left, bottom, and top.

line_color Color of the line. See the color argument for details.
line_width Width of the line in em units (default: 0.1).
finalize A function applied to the table object at the very end of table-building, for post-processing. For example, the function could use regular expressions to add LaTeX commands to the text version of the table hosted in x@table_string, or it could programmatically change the caption in x@caption.
tabularray_inner A string that specifies the "inner" settings of a tabularray LaTeX table.
tabularray_outer A string that specifies the "outer" settings of a tabularray LaTeX table.
bootstrap_class String. Bootstrap table class such as “table”, “table table-dark” or “table table-dark table-hover”. See the bootstrap documentation.
bootstrap_css Character vector. CSS style declarations to be applied to every cell defined by i and j (ex: “font-weight: bold”).
bootstrap_css_rule String. Complete CSS rules (with curly braces, semicolon, etc.) that apply to the table class specified by the bootstrap_class argument.
extra arguments are ignored


This function applies styling to a table created by tt(). It allows customization of text style (bold, italic, monospace), text and background colors, font size, cell width, text alignment, column span, and indentation. The function also supports passing native instructions to LaTeX (tabularray) and HTML (bootstrap) formats.

Note: Markdown and Word tables only support these styles: italic, bold, strikeout. Moreover, the style_tt() function cannot be used to style headers inserted by the group_tt() function; instead, you should style the headers directly in the header definition using markdown syntax: group_tt(i = list(“italic header” = 2)). These limitations are due to the fact that there is no markdown syntax for the other options, and that we create Word documents by converting a markdown table to .docx via the Pandoc software.


An object of class tt representing the table.

LaTeX preamble

tinytable uses the tabularray package from your LaTeX distribution to draw tables. tabularray, in turn, uses the special tblr, talltblr, and longtblr environments.

When rendering a document from Quarto or Rmarkdown directly to PDF, tinytable will populate the LaTeX preamble automatically with all the required packages (except when code chunks are cached). For standalone LaTeX documents, these commands should be inserted in the preamble manually:




if (knitr::is_html_output()) options(tinytable_print_output = "html")


tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6])

# Alignment
tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6]) |> 
  style_tt(j = 1:5, align = "lcccr")

# Colors and styles
tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6]) |> 
  style_tt(i = 2:3, background = "black", color = "orange", bold = TRUE)

# column selection with `j``
tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6]) |> 
  style_tt(j = 5:6, background = "pink")

tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6]) |>
  style_tt(j = "drat|wt", background = "pink")

tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6]) |>
  style_tt(j = c("drat", "wt"), background = "pink")

tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6], theme = "void") |>
    i = 2, j = 2,
    colspan = 3,
    rowspan = 2,
    alignv = "m",
    color = "white",
    background = "black",
    bold = TRUE)
tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6], theme = "void") |>
tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6], theme = "bootstrap") |>
      i = c(2,5),
      j = 3,
      strikeout = TRUE,
      fontsize = 0.7)
tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:6]) |>
  style_tt(bootstrap_class = "table table-dark table-hover")

inner <- "
hlines = {fg=white},
vlines = {fg=white},
cell{1,6}{odd} = {bg=teal7},
cell{1,6}{even} = {bg=green7},
cell{2,4}{1,4} = {bg=red7},
cell{3,5}{1,4} = {bg=purple7},
cell{2}{2} = {r=4,c=2}{bg=azure7},
tt(mtcars[1:5, 1:4], theme = "void") |>
  style_tt(tabularray_inner = inner)