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Convenience function to tabulate counts, cell percentages, and row/column percentages for categorical variables. See the Details section for a description of the internal design. For more complex cross tabulations, use datasummary directly. See the Details and Examples sections below, and the vignettes on the modelsummary website:




  statistic = 1 ~ 1 + N + Percent("row"),
  output = "default",
  fmt = 1,
  title = NULL,
  notes = NULL,
  align = NULL,
  add_columns = NULL,
  add_rows = NULL,
  sparse_header = TRUE,
  escape = TRUE,



A two-sided formula to describe the table: rows ~ columns, where rows and columns are variables in the data. Rows and columns may contain interactions, e.g., var1 * var2 ~ var3.


A formula of the form 1 ~ 1 + N + Percent("row"). The left-hand side may only be empty or contain a 1 to include row totals. The right-hand side may contain: 1 for column totals, N for counts, Percent() for cell percentages, Percent("row") for row percentages, Percent("col") for column percentages.


A data.frame (or tibble)


filename or object type (character string)

  • Supported filename extensions: .docx, .html, .tex, .md, .txt, .png, .jpg.

  • Supported object types: "default", "html", "markdown", "latex", "latex_tabular", "data.frame", "gt", "kableExtra", "huxtable", "flextable", "jupyter". The "modelsummary_list" value produces a lightweight object which can be saved and fed back to the modelsummary function.

  • Warning: Users should not supply a file name to the output argument if they intend to customize the table with external packages. See the 'Details' section.

  • LaTeX compilation requires the booktabs and siunitx packages, but siunitx can be disabled or replaced with global options. See the 'Details' section.

  • The default output formats and table-making packages can be modified with global options. See the 'Details' section.


determines how to format numeric values

  • integer: the number of digits to keep after the period format(round(x, fmt), nsmall=fmt)

  • character: passed to the sprintf function (e.g., '%.3f' keeps 3 digits with trailing zero). See ?sprintf

  • function: returns a formatted character string.

  • NULL: does not format numbers, which allows users to include function in the "glue" strings in the estimate and statistic arguments.




list or vector of notes to append to the bottom of the table.


A string with a number of characters equal to the number of columns in the table (e.g., align = "lcc"). Valid characters: l, c, r, d.

  • "l": left-aligned column

  • "c": centered column

  • "r": right-aligned column

  • "d": dot-aligned column. Only supported for LaTeX/PDF tables produced by kableExtra. These commands must appear in the LaTeX preamble (they are added automatically when compiling Rmarkdown documents to PDF):

    • \usepackage{booktabs}

    • \usepackage{siunitx}

    • \newcolumntype{d}{S[input-symbols = ()]}


a data.frame (or tibble) with the same number of rows as your main table.


a data.frame (or tibble) with the same number of columns as your main table. By default, rows are appended to the bottom of the table. You can define a "position" attribute of integers to set the row positions. See Examples section below.


TRUE or FALSE. TRUE eliminates column headers which have a unique label across all columns, except for the row immediately above the data. FALSE keeps all headers. The order in which terms are entered in the formula determines the order in which headers appear. For example, x~mean*z will print the mean-related header above the z-related header.`


boolean TRUE escapes or substitutes LaTeX/HTML characters which could prevent the file from compiling/displaying. This setting does not affect captions or notes.


all other arguments are passed through to the table-making functions kableExtra::kbl or gt::gt, depending on the output argument. This allows users to pass arguments directly to datasummary in order to affect the behavior of other functions behind the scenes.


datasummary_crosstab is a wrapper around the datasummary function. This wrapper works by creating a customized formula and by feeding it to datasummary. The customized formula comes in two parts.

First, we take a two-sided formula supplied by the formula argument. All variables of that formula are wrapped in a Factor() call to ensure that the variables are treated as categorical.

Second, the statistic argument gives a two-sided formula which specifies the statistics to include in the table. datasummary_crosstab modifies this formula automatically to include "clean" labels.

Finally, the formula and statistic formulas are combined into a single formula which is fed directly to the datasummary function to produce the table.

Variables in formula are automatically wrapped in Factor().

Global Options

The behavior of modelsummary can be affected by setting global options:

  • modelsummary_factory_default

  • modelsummary_factory_latex

  • modelsummary_factory_html

  • modelsummary_factory_png

  • modelsummary_get

  • modelsummary_format_numeric_latex

  • modelsummary_format_numeric_html

Table-making packages

modelsummary supports 4 table-making packages: kableExtra, gt, flextable, and huxtable. Some of these packages have overlapping functionalities. For example, 3 of those packages can export to LaTeX. To change the default backend used for a specific file format, you can use the options function:

options(modelsummary_factory_html = 'kableExtra') options(modelsummary_factory_latex = 'gt') options(modelsummary_factory_word = 'huxtable') options(modelsummary_factory_png = 'gt')

Model extraction functions

modelsummary can use two sets of packages to extract information from statistical models: the easystats family (performance and parameters) and broom. By default, it uses easystats first and then falls back on broom in case of failure. You can change the order of priorities or include goodness-of-fit extracted by both packages by setting:

options(modelsummary_get = "broom") options(modelsummary_get = "easystats") options(modelsummary_get = "all")

Formatting numeric entries

By default, LaTeX tables enclose all numeric entries in the \num{} command from the siunitx package. To prevent this behavior, or to enclose numbers in dollar signs (for LaTeX math mode), users can call:

options(modelsummary_format_numeric_latex = "plain") options(modelsummary_format_numeric_latex = "mathmode")

A similar option can be used to display numerical entries using MathJax in HTML tables:

options(modelsummary_format_numeric_html = "mathjax")


Arel-Bundock V (2022). “modelsummary: Data and Model Summaries in R.” Journal of Statistical Software, 103(1), 1-23. doi:10.18637/jss.v103.i01 .'


if (FALSE) {
  # crosstab of two variables, showing counts, row percentages, and row/column totals
  datasummary_crosstab(cyl ~ gear, data = mtcars)

  # crosstab of two variables, showing counts only and no totals
  datasummary_crosstab(cyl ~ gear, statistic = ~ N, data = mtcars)

  # crosstab of three variables
  datasummary_crosstab(am * cyl ~ gear, data = mtcars)
  # crosstab with two variables and column percentages 
  datasummary_crosstab(am ~ gear, statistic = ~ Percentage("col"), data = mtcars)