## School Expenditures and Test Scores for 50 States, 1994-95

### Description

A data set for a canonical case of a Simpson's paradox, useful for in-class
instruction on the topic.

### Usage

```
Guber99
```

### Format

A data frame with 50 observations on the following 8 variables.

`state`

a character vector for the state

`expendpp`

a numeric vector for the current expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, 1994-95 (in thousands of dollars)

`ptratio`

a numeric vector for the average pupil/teacher ratio in public elementary and secondary schools, Fall 1994

`tsalary`

a numeric vector for the estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, 1994-95 (in thousands of dollars)

`perctakers`

a numeric vector for the percentage of all eligible students taking the SAT, 1994-95

`verbal`

a numeric vector for the average verbal SAT score, 1994-95

`math`

a numeric vector for the average math SAT score, 1994-95

`total`

a numeric vector for the average total SAT score, 1994-95

### References

Guber, Deborah Lynne. 1999. "Getting What You Pay For: The Debate Over Equity in Public School Expenditures." *Journal of Statistics Education* 7(2).