Bees | R Documentation |

## Captive and maltreated bees

### Description

Pabalan, Davey and Packe (2000) studied the effects of captivity and maltreatment on reproductive capabilities of queen and worker bees in a complex factorial design.

### Format

A data frame with 246 observations on the following 6 variables.

`caste`

a factor with levels

`Queen`

`Worker`

`treat`

a factor with levels

`""`

`CAP`

`MAL`

`time`

an ordered factor: time of treatment

`Iz`

an index of ovarian development

`Iy`

an index of ovarian reabsorption

`trtime`

a factor with levels

`0`

`CAP05`

`CAP07`

`CAP10`

`CAP12`

`CAP15`

`MAL05`

`MAL07`

`MAL10`

`MAL12`

`MAL15`

### Details

Bees were placed in a small tube and either held captive (CAP) or shaken
periodically (MAL) for one of 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 or 15 minutes, after which
they were sacrificed and two measures: ovarian development (`Iz`

) and
ovarian reabsorption (`Iy`

), were taken. A single control group was
measured with no such treatment, i.e., at time 0; there are n=10 per group.

The design is thus nearly a three-way factorial, with factors `caste`

(Queen, Worker), `treat`

(CAP, MAL) and `time`

, except that there
are only 11 combinations of Treatment and Time; we call these `trtime`

below.

Models for the three-way factorial design, using the formula
`cbind(Iz,Iy) ~ caste*treat*time`

ignore the control condition at
`time==0`

, where `treat==NA`

.

To handle the additional control group at `time==0`

, while separating
the effects of Treatment and Time, 10 contrasts can be defined for the
`trtime`

factor in the model `cbind(Iz,Iy) ~ caste*trtime`

See
`demo(bees.contrasts)`

for details.

In the `heplot`

examples below, the default `size="evidence"`

displays are too crowded to interpret, because some effects are so highly
significant. The alternative effect-size scaling, `size="effect"`

,
makes the relations clearer.

### Source

Pabalan, N., Davey, K. G. & Packe, L. (2000). Escalation of
Aggressive Interactions During Staged Encounters in Halictus ligatus Say
(Hymenoptera: Halictidae), with a Comparison of Circle Tube Behaviors with
Other Halictine Species *Journal of Insect Behavior*, **13**,
627-650.

### References

Friendly, M. (2006). Data Ellipses, HE Plots and Reduced-Rank
Displays for Multivariate Linear Models: SAS Software and Examples
*Journal of Statistical Software*, **17**, 1-42.

### Examples

```
data(Bees)
require(car)
# 3-way factorial, ignoring 0 group
bees.mod <- lm(cbind(Iz,Iy) ~ caste*treat*time, data=Bees)
car::Anova(bees.mod)
op<-palette(c(palette()[1:4],"brown","magenta", "olivedrab","darkgray"))
heplot(bees.mod,
xlab="Iz: Ovarian development",
ylab="Iz: Ovarian reabsorption",
main="Bees: ~caste*treat*time")
heplot(bees.mod, size="effect",
xlab="Iz: Ovarian development",
ylab="Iz: Ovarian reabsorption",
main="Bees: ~caste*treat*time",
)
# two-way design, using trtime
bees.mod1 <- lm(cbind(Iz,Iy) ~ caste*trtime, data=Bees)
Anova(bees.mod1)
# HE plots for this model, with both significance and effect size scaling
heplot(bees.mod1,
xlab="Iz: Ovarian development",
ylab="Iz: Ovarian reabsorption",
main="Bees: ~caste*trtime")
heplot(bees.mod1,
xlab="Iz: Ovarian development",
ylab="Iz: Ovarian reabsorption",
main="Bees: ~caste*trtime",
size="effect")
palette(op)
# effect plots for separate responses
if(require(effects)) {
bees.lm1 <-lm(Iy ~ treat*caste*time, data=Bees)
bees.lm2 <-lm(Iz ~ treat*caste*time, data=Bees)
bees.eff1 <- allEffects(bees.lm1)
plot(bees.eff1,multiline=TRUE,ask=FALSE)
bees.eff2 <- allEffects(bees.lm2)
plot(bees.eff2,multiline=TRUE,ask=FALSE)
}
```