USArrests | R Documentation |
This data set contains statistics, in arrests per 100,000 residents for assault, murder, and rape in each of the 50 US states in 1973. Also given is the percent of the population living in urban areas.
USArrests
A data frame with 50 observations on 4 variables.
[,1] | Murder | numeric | Murder arrests (per 100,000) |
[,2] | Assault | numeric | Assault arrests (per 100,000) |
[,3] | UrbanPop | numeric | Percent urban population |
[,4] | Rape | numeric | Rape arrests (per 100,000) |
USArrests
contains the data as in McNeil's monograph. For the
UrbanPop
percentages, a review of the table (No. 21) in the
Statistical Abstracts 1975 reveals a transcription error for Maryland
(and that McNeil used the same “round to even” rule that R's
round()
uses), as found by Daniel S Coven (Arizona).
See the example below on how to correct the error and improve accuracy for the ‘<n>.5’ percentages.
World Almanac and Book of facts 1975. (Crime rates).
Statistical Abstracts of the United States 1975, p.20, (Urban rates), possibly available as https://books.google.ch/books?id=zl9qAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA20.
McNeil, D. R. (1977) Interactive Data Analysis. New York: Wiley.
The state
data sets.
summary(USArrests) require(graphics) pairs(USArrests, panel = panel.smooth, main = "USArrests data") ## Difference between 'USArrests' and its correction USArrests["Maryland", "UrbanPop"] # 67 -- the transcription error UA.C <- USArrests UA.C["Maryland", "UrbanPop"] <- 76.6 ## also +/- 0.5 to restore the original <n>.5 percentages s5u <- c("Colorado", "Florida", "Mississippi", "Wyoming") s5d <- c("Nebraska", "Pennsylvania") UA.C[s5u, "UrbanPop"] <- UA.C[s5u, "UrbanPop"] + 0.5 UA.C[s5d, "UrbanPop"] <- UA.C[s5d, "UrbanPop"] - 0.5 ## ==> UA.C is now a *C*orrected version of USArrests