EdgeworthDeaths | R Documentation |

## Edgeworth's Data on Death Rates in British Counties

### Description

In 1885, Francis Edgeworth published a paper, *On methods of ascertaining variations in the rate of births, deaths and marriages*.
It contained among the first examples of two-way tables, analyzed to show variation among row and column factors,
in a way that Fisher would later formulate as the Analysis of Variance.

Although the data are rates per 1000, they provide a good example of a two-way ANOVA with n=1 per cell, where an additive model fits reasonably well.

Treated as frequencies, the data is also a good example of a case where the independence model fits reasonably well.

### Usage

`data("EdgeworthDeaths")`

### Format

A data frame with 42 observations on the following 3 variables.

`County`

a factor with levels

`Berks`

`Herts`

`Bucks`

`Oxford`

`Bedford`

`Cambridge`

`year`

an ordered factor with levels

`1876`

<`1877`

<`1878`

<`1879`

<`1880`

<`1881`

<`1882`

`Freq`

a numeric vector, death rate per 1000 population

### Details

Edgeworth's data came from the Registrar General's report for the final year, 1883.
The `Freq`

variable represents death rates per 1000 population in the six counties listed.

### Source

The data were scanned from Table 5.2 in
Stigler, S. M. (1999) *Statistics on the Table: The History of Statistical Concepts and Methods*,
Harvard University Press.

### References

Edgeworth, F. Y. (1885). On Methods of Ascertaining Variations in the Rate of Births, Deaths, and Marriages.
*Journal of the Statistical Society of London*, 48(4), 628-649. doi:10.2307/2979201

### Examples

```
data(EdgeworthDeaths)
# fit the additive ANOVA model
library(car) # for Anova()
EDmod <- lm(Freq ~ County + year, data=EdgeworthDeaths)
Anova(EDmod)
# now, consider as a two-way table of frequencies
library(vcd)
library(MASS)
structable( ~ County + year, data=EdgeworthDeaths)
loglm( Freq ~ County + year, data=EdgeworthDeaths)
mosaic( ~ County + year, data=EdgeworthDeaths,
shade=TRUE, legend=FALSE, labeling=labeling_values,
gp=shading_Friendly)
```