Australian regional temperature data, Australian regional rainfall data, and Annual SOI, are given for the years 1900-2021. The regional rainfall and temperature data are area-weighted averages for the respective regions. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is the difference in barometric pressure at sea level between Tahiti and Darwin.
These data frames contains the following columns:
Southeastern region average temperature (degrees C)
Murray-Darling basin temperature
Australian average temperature, area-weighted mean
Southeast Australian annual rainfall (mm)
Northern Territory rainfall
South Australian rainfall
West Australian rainfall
Murray-Darling basin rainfall
Australian average rainfall, area weighted
Annual average Southern Oscillation Index
Yearly mean sunspot number
Moana Loa CO2 concentrations, from 1959
Moana Loa CO2 concentrations, 1900 to 1978
CO2 concentrations, composite series
Annual average Dipole Mode Index, for the Indian Ocean Dipole, from 1950
Australian Bureau of Meteorology web pages:
Go to website, choose timeseries to display, then click "Download data"
The SOI data are from http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/enso/soi_monthly.txt.
The CO2 series
co2law, for Law Dome ice core data. is from
The Moana Loa CO2 series
co2mlo is from Dr. Pieter Tans,
CO2 is a composite series, obtained by adding 0.46 to
the Law data for 1900 to 1958, then following this with the Moana Loa
data that is avaiable from 1959. The addition of 0.46 brings the
average of the Law data into agreement with that for the Moana Loa data
for the period 1959 to 1968.
The yearly mean sunspot number is a subset of one of several sunspot series that are available from WDC-SILSO, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels. https://www.sidc.be/silso/datafiles
The dipole mode index data are from https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/tcc/tcc/products/elnino/index/Readme_iod.txt. Note also https://stateoftheocean.osmc.noaa.gov/sur/ind/dmi.php, which has details of several other such series.
D.M. Etheridge, L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola and V.I. Morgan, 1998, Historical CO2 records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores, in Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, on line at Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
Lavery, B., Joung, G. and Nicholls, N. 1997. An extended high-quality historical rainfall dataset for Australia. Australian Meteorological Magazine, 46, 27-38.
Nicholls, N., Lavery, B., Frederiksen, C.\ and Drosdowsky, W. 1996. Recent apparent changes in relationships between the El Nino – southern oscillation and Australian rainfall and temperature. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 3357-3360.
SIDC-team, World Data Center for the Sunspot Index, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Monthly Report on the International Sunspot Number, online catalogue of the sunspot index: https://www.sidc.be/silso/datafiles
plot(ts(bomregions2021[, c("mdbRain","SOI")], start=1900), panel=function(y,...)panel.smooth(bomregions2021$Year, y,...)) avrain <- bomregions2021[,"mdbRain"] xbomsoi <- with(bomregions2021, data.frame(Year=Year, SOI=SOI, cuberootRain=avrain^0.33)) xbomsoi$trendSOI <- lowess(xbomsoi$SOI, f=0.1)$y xbomsoi$trendRain <- lowess(xbomsoi$cuberootRain, f=0.1)$y xbomsoi$detrendRain <- with(xbomsoi, cuberootRain - trendRain + mean(trendRain)) xbomsoi$detrendSOI <- with(xbomsoi, SOI - trendSOI + mean(trendSOI)) ## Plot time series avrain and SOI: ts object xbomsoi plot(ts(xbomsoi[, c("cuberootRain","SOI")], start=1900), panel=function(y,...)panel.smooth(xbomsoi$Year, y,...), xlab = "Year", main="", ylim=list(c(250, 800),c(-20,25))) par(mfrow=c(1,2)) rainpos <- pretty(xbomsoi$cuberootRain^3, 6) plot(cuberootRain ~ SOI, data = xbomsoi, ylab = "Rainfall (cube root scale)", yaxt="n") axis(2, at = rainpos^0.33, labels=paste(rainpos)) mtext(side = 3, line = 0.8, "A", adj = -0.025) with(xbomsoi, lines(lowess(cuberootRain ~ SOI, f=0.75))) plot(detrendRain ~ detrendSOI, data = xbomsoi, xlab="Detrended SOI", ylab = "Detrended rainfall", yaxt="n") axis(2, at = rainpos^0.33, labels=paste(rainpos)) with(xbomsoi, lines(lowess(detrendRain ~ detrendSOI, f=0.75))) mtext(side = 3, line = 0.8, "B", adj = -0.025) par(mfrow=c(1,1))